Climate state of Indonesia
Climatic conditions in Indonesia are affected by three types of climate, the winter climate, sea climate and hot climate. An overview of the three types of climates is as follows.
- Summer climate, influenced by the monsoons are changing every specific time period. Usually the change is a six-month period.
- Marine climate, occurs because Indonesia has a vast sea area giving rise to evaporation and eventually resulted in the rain.
- Hot climates, occur because of Indonesia are in the tropics. The high temperature results in a high evaporation and the potential for the occurrence of rain.
Because the Australian continent around 2/3 of its territory is desert, moving air had relatively little moisture they contain. In addition, the air was just passing through the narrow area of ocean between Australia and Indonesia so that the vapor contains little anyway. At that time, the dry season in Indonesia occurred.
Elements of Climate
Although the weather and different climates, but the elements that make it up are the same. Constituent elements of weather and climate are as follows
Sun is the regulator of the Earth’s climate is very important and a source of primary energy in the earth. Solar energy is emitted in all directions in the form of electromagnetic waves. Irradiating the Sun to the Earth is affected by cloud conditions and differences in the angle of incidence of sunlight.
air temperature is hot or cold air spread in nature and vary depending on the particular area. The spread horizontally indicates the air temperature is highest in tropical regions of the equator (an imaginary line that divides the earth into a northern and southern) and increasingly toward the poles the air temperature gets colder. Average spread of vertically shows, the higher place, the air temperature gets colder. Instrument called a thermometer to measure temperature.
3.Humidity air (humidity)
in the air there is water that occurs due to evaporation. The higher the temperature, the more water vapor it contains. This means, the more the Humidity air . So, Humidity is the amount of water vapor contained in the air. The measuring instrument is a hygrometer.
Cloud is a mass of tiny beads of water dissolved in the lower atmosphere layers. Clouds can show weather conditions.
Rainfall is the amount of rain that falls in an area for a certain time. To determine the magnitude of rainfall used a tool called penakar rain (Rain Gauge).
Wind is the berggerak air from high pressure areas (maximum) to a low pressure area (minimum). Differences in air pressure caused by differences in air temperature. When the air temperature is high, it means that the pressure is low and vice versa. An instrument for measuring wind speed and direction is called an anemometer.
The characteristics of the Climate Hot / Tropical
Location of astronomical Indonesia lies between 6 ° N-11 ° S and 95 ° E-141 ° E to Indonesia, including in tropical climates. Here are the characteristics of a tropical climate.
- The average air temperature is high, because the sun is always vertical. Generally, temperatures between 20-23 ° C even in some places the average annual temperature reaches 30 ° C.
- The amplitude of the annual average temperature is small. At the equator between 1 ° C – 5 ° C, while the daily larger amplitude.
- Low air pressure and changes slowly and irregularly.
- Rain and more than other areas of the world.
- Influenced by the movement of the sun which causes the circulation of wind circulation pattern so that there are two seasons: the rainy season and dry season.
- In some large islands such as Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua are the high mountains that influence variations in climate elements in each territory.
- Indonesia also has a tropical climate, it is influenced forms of Indonesian territory in the form of islands. Most mainland Indonesia surrounded by the sea or ocean. That is why in Indonesia there is a marine climate. The nature of this humid climate and many bring rain.