Climate state of Indonesia

Indonesia known to be very beautiful nature and rich in natural resources. No wonder so many tourists from various countries interested and come to Indonesia. Tourism activity is growing in sejumah regions such as Bali, Yogyakarta, Lombok, and others so that the economic benefit is not small. God has given us all such as forests, rivers, lakes, mountains and mountains that looked stunning. Remember, beauty is not all states have them. Many countries that partly just a desert, ice field, pasture, and others.
Indonesia’s natural state can be divided into two parts, the physical state of the region and the state of flora and fauna. The physical state of the area consists of the climate and the state of the earth’s surface shape (condition fisografis) which will then determine the type of soil. While the situation regarding the flora and fauna species diversity and distribution.

Climate state of Indonesia

Climate is the average state of the weather in a region in which a relatively long period of time. Weather is the state of the air temperature, air pressure, precipitation, wind, sunshine on a particular time and place. Location of astronomical Indonesia is located in the tropics makes Indonesia has a tropical climate. Tropical climate characteristic is the high air temperature throughout the year, with an average of not less than 18 ° C, about 27 ° C. In the tropics, there is no significant difference between the temperature of distant or in the rainy season and temperatures in the dry season. Feature other tropical areas is a long day and a long night almost flat at around 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night.

Climatic conditions in Indonesia are affected by three types of climate, the winter climate, sea climate and hot climate. An overview of the three types of climates is as follows.

  1. Summer climate, influenced by the monsoons are changing every specific time period. Usually the change is a six-month period.
  2. Marine climate, occurs because Indonesia has a vast sea area giving rise to evaporation and eventually resulted in the rain.
  3. Hot climates, occur because of Indonesia are in the tropics. The high temperature results in a high evaporation and the potential for the occurrence of rain.
The three types of climatic impact on the high rainfall in Indonesia. Rainfall in Indonesia vary between regions, but generally around 2,500 mm / year. Although figures vary rainfall in Indonesia, but in general is relatively large rainfall. Large rainfall conditions supported with sufficient solar radiation makes Indonesia highly suitable for agricultural activities so as to meet the needs of the population for food.
The interesting thing for Indonesia is the monsoon. Monsoon is a wind that occurs due to differences in air pressure between oceans and continents. At the time of the ocean receives solar radiation, it takes longer to heat the ocean. Meanwhile, the continent more quickly receive heat. As a result, the higher pressure of the ocean compared with the continent, then move on air from the ocean to the continent.
During the rainy season in Indonesia (October to April), this wind that moves from the Pacific to the Indonesian region deflected by corioli style that turned him into a westerly winds called monsoons west. Coriolis force is inertia due to the influence of the earth’s rotation so as if the wind is deflected to the right of the Northern Hemisphere (BBU) and deflected to the left of the Southern Hemisphere. On the move in parts of Indonesia, the monsoon from the Pacific Ocean has brought a lot of moisture so derived as rain in Indonesia.
Events opposite occurs during the dry season (May to September). At that time, the monsoon from the continent of Australia, or so-called pressurized maximum easterly winds moving towards the Asian continent minimum pressure through Indonesian territory.

Because the Australian continent around 2/3 of its territory is desert, moving air had relatively little moisture they contain. In addition, the air was just passing through the narrow area of ocean between Australia and Indonesia so that the vapor contains little anyway. At that time, the dry season in Indonesia occurred.

Elements of Climate
Although the weather and different climates, but the elements that make it up are the same. Constituent elements of weather and climate are as follows

1.Penyinaran Sun
Sun is the regulator of the Earth’s climate is very important and a source of primary energy in the earth. Solar energy is emitted in all directions in the form of electromagnetic waves. Irradiating the Sun to the Earth is affected by cloud conditions and differences in the angle of incidence of sunlight.

Air 2.Suhu
air temperature is hot or cold air spread in nature and vary depending on the particular area. The spread horizontally indicates the air temperature is highest in tropical regions of the equator (an imaginary line that divides the earth into a northern and southern) and increasingly toward the poles the air temperature gets colder. Average spread of vertically shows, the higher place, the air temperature gets colder. Instrument called a thermometer to measure temperature.

3.Humidity air (humidity)
in the air there is water that occurs due to evaporation. The higher the temperature, the more water vapor it contains. This means, the more the Humidity air . So, Humidity is the amount of water vapor contained in the air. The measuring instrument is a hygrometer.

4. Cloud
Cloud is a mass of tiny beads of water dissolved in the lower atmosphere layers. Clouds can show weather conditions.

5.Curah Rain
Rainfall is the amount of rain that falls in an area for a certain time. To determine the magnitude of rainfall used a tool called penakar rain (Rain Gauge).

Wind is the berggerak air from high pressure areas (maximum) to a low pressure area (minimum). Differences in air pressure caused by differences in air temperature. When the air temperature is high, it means that the pressure is low and vice versa. An instrument for measuring wind speed and direction is called an anemometer.

The characteristics of the Climate Hot / Tropical
Location of astronomical Indonesia lies between 6 ° N-11 ° S and 95 ° E-141 ° E to Indonesia, including in tropical climates. Here are the characteristics of a tropical climate.

  1. The average air temperature is high, because the sun is always vertical. Generally, temperatures between 20-23 ° C even in some places the average annual temperature reaches 30 ° C.
  2. The amplitude of the annual average temperature is small. At the equator between 1 ° C – 5 ° C, while the daily larger amplitude.
  3. Low air pressure and changes slowly and irregularly.
  4. Rain and more than other areas of the world.
  5. Influenced by the movement of the sun which causes the circulation of wind circulation pattern so that there are two seasons: the rainy season and dry season.
  6. In some large islands such as Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua are the high mountains that influence variations in climate elements in each territory.
  7. Indonesia also has a tropical climate, it is influenced forms of Indonesian territory in the form of islands. Most mainland Indonesia surrounded by the sea or ocean. That is why in Indonesia there is a marine climate. The nature of this humid climate and many bring rain.

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